Photography – Modern Day Slavery

Lisa Kristine:

This body of images documents the pain of modern day slavery and the hope of freedom, allowing us to bear witness to the most horrible abuses imaginable and the most astonishing glimpses of the indomitable human spirit.

Stratum – Nepal

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Cave Mine – Ghana

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Blue Red Black – India

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Enslaved – Ghana

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Sources:

https://www.lisakristine.com/lisa-kristine-glimpses-modern-day-slavery/
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Can a French Friar End the 21’st Century Slave Trade? Deconstructing the Article & Further Resarch.

Starting this project David provided us with 10 articles, we needed to select one topic of interest of which we would eventually use it as the content of our editorial magazine design project. Most of the articles sounded very exciting and somewhat intriguing, however, “Can a French Friar End the 21’st Century Slave Trade?” seemed to be the one that really stood out to me. I liked the idea of working with something different and relatively big for a change. I felt that this article was the big issue that the nowadays society faces, something that needed more attention.

As a designer, I believe I can help to spread the word using the visual language of design. This topic feels very similar to the last project “designing like activism” which we needed to design for people who do not have the knowledge and the necessary tools to speak out loud to the world, and the world giving them the attention required to make a change. So that’s when I come in, putting together everything that I have learnt in the past and since the start of this course to come up with the best graphic language for my chosen topic for the editorial piece.

Now I have studied the article and I have deconstructed it in order to learn more about it and its background, tones etc.

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Full text —–>  http://www.vanityfair.com/news/2015/11/modern-day-slave-trade

What is forced labour?

Forced labour is any work or service which people are forced to do against their will, under threat of punishment. Almost all slavery practices contain some element of forced labour.

It affects millions of men, women and children around the world. It is most often found in industries with a lot of workers and little regulation. These include:

  • Agriculture and fishing
  • Domestic work
  • Construction, mining, quarrying and brick kilns
  • Manufacturing, processing and packaging
  • Prostitution and sexual exploitation
  • Market trading and illegal activities

Forced labour is the most common element of modern slavery. It is the most extreme form of people exploitation.

Although many people associate forced labour and slavery with physical violence, in fact, the ways used to force people to work are more insidious and ingrained in some cultures.

Forced labour often affects the most vulnerable and excluded groups, for example commonly discriminated Dalits in India. Women and girls are more at risk than boys and men, and children make up a quarter of people in forced labour.

Migrant workers are targeted because they often don’t speak the language, have few friends, have limited rights and depend on their employers.

Forced labour happens in the context of poverty, lack of sustainable jobs and education, as well as a weak rule of law, corruption and an economy dependent on cheap labour.

Five Forms of Slavery:

Chattel slavery is the most common form of slavery known to Americans. This system, which allowed people — considered legal property — to be bought, sold and owned forever, was supported by the US and European powers in the 16th – 18th centuries.

Today, most observers agree there are five major forms of slavery occurring in the world. Each form represents the basic truths of enslavement: The victims are forced to work involuntarily or are unable to leave once they have started.

The enslaved face the threat of physical, mental or emotional punishments and are deceived and abused daily. If a person’s labour is exploited by such means, any previous consent to work for the enslaver becomes irrelevant as they are now being held against their will.

Thankfully, slavery is no longer legally protected anywhere in the world. Yet, the control and exploitation of one human being by another still remain.

  • Forced Labor — Describes all types of coerced work that an individual must provide against his or her will. Contemporary forced labourers are treated as property to be exploited commercially, much in the same way African Americans were regarded during the antebellum period in American history.
  • Bonded Labor or Debt Labor — Describes slavery in which an individual is compelled to work in order to repay a debt. It differs from other forms in that, oftentimes the labourer and the employer initially enter into a mutual agreement. However, contract conditions may be illegal and/or vastly more beneficial to the employer than the labourer. These workers become slaves when they continue working, but cannot pay off their initial debt because of exploitative contract terms and, thus, cannot leave.
  • Sex Slavery — Describes women, men or children that are exploited in the commercial sex industry, which may include: pornography, prostitution, erotic entertainment, strip clubs, online escort services, residential brothels, hostess clubs, fake massage parlours or any exchange of a sex act for something of value. Money may or may not be exchanged; other things that may be traded for sex acts are drugs, shelter, food or clothes. A person’s initial consent to participate is irrelevant if that person is held in service through psychological manipulation or physical force.
  • Child Slavery — Describes all child labour obtained from individuals under the age of 18 through the means of force, deception or coercion. Children can be enslaved in debt bondage, forced labour, prostitution, armies, domestic work and other forms of hazardous work. Today, forced child labour exists in nearly every industry around the globe.
  • Domestic Servitude — Describes slaves that are forced to work in extremely hidden workplaces: private homes. Domestic workers become slaves when their employer uses force, fraud or coercion to control or convince an employee that they have no choice but to continue working. Isolating environments, unfamiliar languages, confiscated travel documents and restricted mobility are often connected to this form of slavery.

We all have seen, heard or even came across the big brands like Apple, Starbucks, Tesco or even consumable products like shrimp, coffee, chocolate, tobacco and many others that have been fabricated and cultivated through using child slavery, forced labour etc. This video shows a better insight on how these products were produced through this type of labour and how it works.

Anti-Slavery Campaigns:

Slavery is closer than you think

Hidden In Plain Sight

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CIOB Report

Recommendations from the report centred on the need to create an all-encompassing approach to the issue of modern slavery, with contributions from government, industry and NGOs.

Operation Magnify, an enforcement initiative launched by the Home Office, targeted businesses that employed or exploited illegal migrant workers. The CIOB supported the campaign and cited that migrants without the right to work become vulnerable, and, as our industry tells us, are at serious risk of injury, exploitation and human rights abuses.

 

Examples of Posters about Anti-Slavery


Sources:

https://www.antislavery.org/slavery-today/forced-labour/
http://freedomcenter.org/enabling-freedom/five-forms-of-slavery
https://finncomms.com/blog/university-of-hull-anti-slavery-day-campaign
http://angelandanchor.com/my-blog/anti-slavery-day
https://www.ciob.org/campaigns/tackling-modern-slavery-construction

Swiss Style & Modernims

Swiss Style Design:

Often referred to as the International Typographic Style or the International Style, the style of design that originated in Switzerland in the 1940s and 50s was the basis of much of the development of graphic design during the mid 20th century. Led by designers Josef Müller-Brockmann at the Zurich School of Arts and Krafts and Armin Hofmann at the Basel School of Design, the style favored simplicity, legibility and objectivity.

Of the many contributions to develop from the two schools were the use of, sans-serif typography, grids and asymmetrical layouts. Also stressed was the combination of typography and photography as a means of visual communication. The primary influential works were developed as posters, which were seen to be the most effective means of communication.

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If you’re a designer in the 21st century, chances are you’ve studied the International Typographic Style (more commonly known as ‘Swiss Style’). Let’s take a moment to honor some of modern design’s most influential principles, typefaces and artists who started this central-European trend.

The Typefaces:

Appreciating Swiss Style means appreciating the typefaces that started it all. Those grid systems wouldn’t be anything without the classic sans serif typeface that so seamlessly folds into Swiss Style. Those who taught Swiss Style argued that design should focus on the content and not decorative extras. By stripping away the embellishments, Swiss Style eliminates distractions for the viewer and allows the information-heavy design to be read and studied rather than merely seen and admired. Because of this, the typefaces chosen to represent Swiss Style are those that really hone in one the movement’s key principles:

Akzidenz-Grotesk

Probably the most influential typeface for this movement, Akzidenz-Grotesk was released by the Berthold Type Foundry in 1896 and was arguably the first of its kind. It soon became one of the most widely used typefaces and was even sold in the U.S. under the names “Standard” or “Basic Commercial.” If that doesn’t shout “FIRST!” I don’t know what does.

Univers

Adrian Frutiger, one of the most influential typeface designers of the 20th century, created Univers in 1954. Pulling elements from Akzidenz-Grotesk, Frutiger created one of the first typefaces that formed a font family, allowing documents to use one typeface (instead of several) in various sizes and weights, creating a beautifully simple uniform via text alone. Originally released by Danberry & Peignot in 1957, the family passed through the hands of the Haas Type Foundry before being purchased in 2007 (along with all of Linotype) by Monotype.

Helvetica

When Max Miedinger and Eduard Hoffmann created Helvetica in 1957, did they know their work would result in what is arguably the most ubiquitous sans serif typeface in the world? Probably not. Did they think, for just a moment, their typeface would inspire a film? Again, probably not. But here we are, nearly 60 years later, with an 88% fresh rating on Rotten Tomatoes, and Simon Garfield regarding Helvetica as “ubiquitous because it fulfills so many demands for modern type.”

Modernism:

Modernism refers to the broad movement in Western arts and literature that gathered pace from around 1850, and is characterised by a deliberate rejection of the styles of the past; emphasising instead innovation and experimentation in forms, materials and techniques in order to create artworks that better reflected modern society

The terms modernism and modern art are generally used to describe the succession of art movements that critics and historians have identified since the realism of Gustav Courbet and culminating in abstract art and its developments in the 1960s.

Although many different styles are encompassed by the term, there are certain underlying principles that define modernist art: A rejection of history and conservative values (such as realistic depiction of subjects); innovation and experimentation with form (the shapes, colours and lines that make up the work) with a tendency to abstraction; and an emphasis on materials, techniques and processes. Modernism has also been driven by various social and political agendas. These were often utopian, and modernism was in general associated with ideal visions of human life and society and a belief in progress.

By the 1960s modernism had become a dominant idea of art, and a particularly narrow theory of modernist painting had been formulated by the highly influential American critic Clement Greenberg. A reaction then took place which was quickly identified as postmodernism.


Sources:

http://www.designishistory.com/home/swiss/
http://www.printmag.com/typography/swiss-style-principles-typefaces-designers/
http://www.tate.org.uk/art/art-terms/m/modernism

 

Magazine Spreads – Good and Bad Practices

Magazine spread is two pages that are next to each other. Each spread works as one unit. It is not two pages separated but two pages that work together to create one unit. When designing magazines it is vital to look at these two pages as one single element even if those pages are going to contain two different stories. Even if one of the pages is containing an ad or even if one story is ending on the left page and another is starting on the right page (if possible you should avoid situations like these but sometimes they are unavoidable).

Readers see a spread as one unit. Since magazines are smaller than newspapers, magazine spread can be “digested” in one view because our peripheral vision encompasses the entire spread at normal viewing distance. On the other hand newspaper, especially large format broadsheet newspapers are scanned in several takes.

Because of this, you have to consider what will be on the other side of your spread. Will it be an ad, will it be the beginning of another story or maybe a full bleed image.

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The grey areas represent the most visible areas of the spread. The Darker shaded area is more visible than the lighter shades. Readers eye is drawn to the upper parts that are why those areas have the most impact.

Elements of the spread:

Not all areas of the spread are equal. Some have more importance, some have less. For example, when you go to the newsstand, you pick up some magazine, you grab the magazine by the spine with your left hand, and with your right hand, you flip through the pages.

The most visible area at that point is the outer part of the right page. Another example is if you put the magazine on the table and start flipping the pages, the lighter (left part) of the magazine will be flipped and folded but the heavier (right part) will stay flat on the table, hence more exposed to the viewer’s eye. The process is reversed if someone is flipping magazine from the last page, then the outer left area of the page is the most visible one.

The most visible parts of a spread are outer upper parts

You should place your best content on the outside parts of the spread. These are the areas that are most seen. This is the place to put most provocative images and words. Put the best stuff where it will be most visible and where it will make the best impact. Most valuable areas of page spread are top left and top right parts because when you skim through the magazine these are the areas where you look the most. Make the most of them.

On the other hand, the bottom part of the spread, inner corners near the gutter are less important. Have you ever noticed how designers place footnotes and some credits in those parts of the spread? Now you know why.

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Bad example of placing headline and intro text. It is not a natural way of skimming through the story.

Readers eye direction:

When influencing on the reader your design should have meaning. Readers concentrate on the top parts of the spread. This is the first place where their eye will stop when they skim through the pages so you cannot start your story by placing headline on the bottom right page. This is not a natural starting point.

I have seen this in so many examples, but try to avoid it. It is not good design if the reader has to search through the page to find the most important thing (if there is no image on the page), and that’s the headline. It is even worse if you put the headline at the bottom and you put the beginning of the story on top of it.

This is not a natural way of reading the story. Everything should have flow. You should work your way from the meaningful top left and then continue to the bottom. The headline, intro copy and then the main copy. That should be your guide.

 

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In this case, it is OK to place the headline at the bottom. The readers will have no problem following the story, besides, it would be awkward to place the headline on top of the model’s head.

This is the natural way of viewing things unless designer pulls his attention away by placing elements on the page that will attract the reader’s eye. Sometimes the headline can go on the bottom part of the page if this page has a full-page image that bleeds out of the page.

magazine-spread-bad-text-flow
This is an example of bad text flow. You can see how the flow of the story is not natural and the reader will have a hard time following the text across.

Image and body text arrangement:

When placing big blocks of text, try not to break them up. You should not throw elements on a page just for the sake of throwing them around. Let it have a meaning. A flow. If you put barriers on the page, reader will have a hard time following the flow of the story. Keep the flow of the text columns tidy and even.

Things should be simple, and you should simplify the design by aligning the columns at the top and placing images above them. In this way, reader will have no problem to follow the text part of the story.

magazine-spread-good-text-flow.png
This is a good example of text flow. Text and images have their own place and importance. Flow is natural and the reader will have no problem following it.

Take a look at these images above and you will see how the flow of the text is better in the second image. Red lines represent the direction of the eye. You will see how harder is to follow the text flow in the first image.

Ad pages:

Advertisers prefer right pages. Since advertisers want the great exposure that’s why they insist on being placed on the right page. Again, as you skim through the magazine you will notice their ad much easier. Especially if the ad is in vertical half a page format. Placing that ad in the inner part of the page, near the gutter, would be a great mistake. Costly mistake.

Always look at a spread as a unit

Left pages are great for editorial content. It is always good to know which ad will go on the opposing page. In this way, you can design editorial page in a way that will correspond with the ad. It is best to make a contrasting design on your editorial page. For example, if the ad is in blue shades, you should not use blue as central colour on your page. If the ad has emphasised image that bleeds out, you should design your page with more text and very few images. In this way, reader will have no problem to distinguish what is editorial and what is an ad. Of course, sometimes this is hard to carry out but try to make your editorial pages different from ad pages.

Try to remember these rules and follow them, once you are familiar with them you can start to break them, but only if it will bring something interesting and make the design better. Do not do something different just for the sake of making it different. Always have meaning for whatever you do.

This is a reblogged article used for research purposes, This article was written by Nikola from magazinedesigning.com

Sources:

http://www.magazinedesigning.com/magazine-spreads-good-bad-practices/

 

Double Page Magazine Layouts & Editorial Design Examples

Double page magazine and book layout examples:

1: The Lonely Road book

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This magazine’s layout is mostly based on negative space and very limited in terms of page content. Although it is a very consistent design layout, the composition seems to change slightly from portrait imagery to landscape text. The design it is also based on a limited colour pallet and it seems to be quite eye catching. Some of the elements of design in this magazine tend to overlap each other creating a rather abstract style.

2: Atlas

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Looking at this poster the first thing that drew my attention was the lady in the picture then the title, then the text on the right spread page which makes the layout flowing and easy to read the content. The composition of this design seems to work quite effectively despite the fact that the title is separated by the image in the middle which creates a little pause when reading the title, however I think it still works pretty good as the title is referring to the girl in the photograph. The hierarchy of this magazine spread is very central and still follows the rules of design, good spacing and very interesting use negative spaces here as well.

Atlas-Elephant-magazine-design6

This double spread is one of my favorites that because of its amazing hierarchy. I love the use of text and image here, the colours seem to make a big impact as well, it is a lovely looking design, very clean and well spaced. The layout seems to be flowing from left to right as it should be, and the use of path of the eye, the first thing I look at when I open this magazine is the right page, however the bold and big title tells us exactly where we should start reading and where the article ends.

Atlas-Elephant-magazine-design3

In this example it is a mixture of text and image working together in order to communicate the message. The first thing I looked at was the 3 dimensional ring which creates the illusion of that the text is also becoming 3d by looking at it making them both equally important. The hierarchy of this design is very centered and well spaced on both pages.

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3: The Freaked Out Issue

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4: Portraits of Power

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5: Futu-Magazine

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6: Hydration in Winter via Luciana Ruivo

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7: Ef Style – Fones via Luciana Ruivo

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8: Healthier via Luciana Ruivo

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9: Magazine Design Spreads via Kristina Ushakov

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10: Making Inroads via Guacamole Goalie

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11: Computer Arts Magazine

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Editorial design examples:

1: Do You Remember When This World Was Ours?

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2: Visual identity concept / Strassenfeger

Visual-identity-concept-Strassenfeger

3: MAID IN CHINA – The story behind your stuff

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4: Bachelor Thesis

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5: Oscar Wilde Retrospective

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6: Our Dying Forests” by The Salt Lake Tribune: Focus The Eye

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Was your eye drawn to that white box cutting through the main photo at the top? If so, design goal achieved.

7: Off the Shelf” by Times of Oman: Create Visual Interest And Intrigue

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8: Off the Shelf” by Times of Oman: Create Visual Interest And Intrigue

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Primary Research

David allowed us to have a look at his design magazine collection and showed us good examples of different magazine styles and good layouts, where we had the opportunity to talk to each other about them and shared opinions. These like many others magazines are great work, they all have remarkable aesthetic elements to them that make every one of these examples unique and beautiful.


Sources:

http://brownseditions.com/product/the-lonely-road-john-ross/
http://eyeondesign.aiga.org/
http://www.huckmagazine.com/art-and-culture/freaked-issue/
http://jamieprokell.com/Portraits-of-Power
http://www.mattwilley.co.uk/Futu-Magazine
https://designschool.canva.com/blog/editorial-design/
http://www.designyourway.net/drb/really-good-examples-of-editorial-design/
http://weddingphotography.com.ph/7238/46-creative-magazine-spread-design-layout-ideas-page/

Afterlife – Elbowgrease magazine

IMG_0177.jpgToday the people behind Elbowgrease Magazine came and talk to us about their work. Tom the creative director came and talk to us about how they got started as a magazine. He talked to us about how they started the whole business and how they came up with their style and showed us how he learned to establish an aesthetically beautiful magazine. As he was learning to develop his style he met Josh and John who helped him promote and introduced a business perspective to his business idea.
Their magazine was based on a strong grid and two good typefaces, it’s a traditional looking magazine that goes beyond standards and comes across as rebellious as well, taking the design and style to a whole new level.
To make it work, they put in a lot of work sometimes working in a pub or a coffee shop as well. They have also invested some of their own money in it to make it happen. They practically started from nothing, and they socialised their way up to accomplish their aims, they also had some help from their friends to put together the necessary tools to create the magazine. However, they managed to hit their target and still managed to earn a 500 pounds extra after hitting their target budget.
They talked to us how to make it by managing the market and making sure the magazine was aimed at the right target and that it is making the right amount of money from it in order to keep going.
Next thing they tried to get the product in the stores like news agents, stores. Finding gaps where would they find the places that people would want to see it. They pushed it, they gave it to barber shops, or related places like shopping centres to display them in their shops that would build their audience. Mosty in stores related to their subjects as they were trying to keep within the target audience.
Then, they needed to know what do people actually think of their magazine. In order to get some feedback they got together a room of people and talked to them face to face about it in order to get some live feedback, they said they were very opened to critisim and when they created the magazine they felt really relaxed about it.
The things they have advised us that before going and selling out our products we need to make sure that we have our invoices ready to go, and get the documents sorted beforehand.
A good way of saving money on printing and making sure you’re still on target with the budget is to save money on printing. They say that a good way to do that is if you are trying to get good deals with the print studious. And, if choosing to go outside the front door with your product like overseas, make sure you consider the political events that may have an impact on your product in a few years.
Also, some key pieces of advice were to consider the possibility that you might fail, can you prevent that and how can you take steps to make sure the product it’s a success. Collaboration is an important part of this, find the right people and help each other, surround yourself with these people. Go socialise and make friends. And, limited resources, we need to do extra work and make it possible. Put in the hours to get it done. They said that at least every 6 months you need to have something on the go otherwise they clients might lose interest in the business and this way you lose from audience.

Illustrators & Animators Research (part III)

Stuart Holmes

International graphic illustrator. Australia.

Londoner Stuart Holmes is now based in Australia’s creative enclave of Melbourne. Trained as a graphic designer, he felt that illustration allowed him much more freedom, and he developed a flat vector style that has remained popular for well over a decade.

Shelley Li Wen Chen

International medical illustrator. Canada

Clarity is a key component in Shelley’s style. She’ll use various aesthetics in order for the image to communicate effectively. Often, she works in a flat, graphic style, particularly if the piece needs to teach or explain something. When it comes to editorial pieces or advertising, she’s more likely to try and grab the viewer’s attention with a more dramatic composition.

Judith Van Den Hoek

International Fashion & Beauty illustrator. Netherlands.

Minimalism and simplicity are what make Judith van den Hoek’s fashion illustrations stand out. One or two simple yet perfectly drawn lines help her to convey beauty, sensuality and creativity in a very direct way. From there she adds just the right amount of colour and detail to make the image feel fresh and exciting, bringing to it a personal touch.

beauty-products-illustration

Andy Gellenberg

Mixed media illustrator. Germany

IGNITE

3D CGI digital illustrator team. UK

Duncan Beedie

International cartoon and children’s book illustrator. UK

Thanks to his animation training, Duncan’s work has a cartoony look and feel, with lots of exaggeration, expression and colour. He loves to add touches of irreverent or incongruous humour wherever he can.

Smartup Visuals

International Live Scribing team. London

Clear composition and a restrained use of colour are key to the Smartup aesthetic. When planning a piece, they focus on the core message and keep it simple, playing with 2D shapes. By varying the size of elements in the drawing they guide the viewer through the artwork and its overall message. Their imagery is fun, naïve and inspiring to whoever looks at it.

Mark Oliver

International graphic & character illustrator. Brighton

Adapting to the challenge of any brief is what excites Mark. He’s used a wide range of media during his career, from physical painting and collage through to Illustrator and Photoshop. Most projects these days are tackled digitally, but he loves to draw and paint as well if it suits the commission.

Mark works in a variety of styles that he adapts to suit the requirements of a job. His favourite at the moment involves an isometric perspective with a distressed finish using a retro palette. He likes the look and feel of old photos from the 50s and 60s, as well as Polaroids, and has a collection of vintage paper and card that he uses to bring real world textures into his work.

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Adam Larkum

International pen & ink illustrator. UK

The search for ways to improve governs Adam’s approach to his work. “I try never to take drawing for granted. I always look for new ways to draw and treat every drawing as a chance to learn.”

Adam believes every commission should start with a pencil in one hand and an eraser in the other, and is never afraid to erase whole areas of a drawing if they aren’t right. He loves working in ink on paper and then shifting into Photoshop to bring the piece together. If his work were a film, he says, it would be an Ealing Comedy – fun, fast and eccentric.


Sources:

http://www.illustrationweb.com/